The SAMR model, developed in 2010 by education researcher Ruben Puentedura, proposes a framework for technology integration into the curriculum. It consists of four components: substitution, augmentation, modification, and redefinition.


In the e-learning context, instructors substitute in-person class materials, such as lectures for their digital versions. Print sources can be scanned and converted into accessible PDF format and shared with students on the Learning Management System (LMS) or cloud storage. Other examples may include web pages, recorded classroom sessions, or instructional videos.


This component refers to incorporating interactive components, such as hyperlinks, comments (in a discussion board or blog), or multimedia. Self graded quizzes on the LMS or platform such as Socrative are examples of the Augmentation component. Gamification using platforms such as or Kahoot is another way of augmenting digital content.


The modification component encompasses the use of the course management platforms, such as Blackboard or Google Classroom. Learning Management System (LMS) enables instructors to post grades, receive and give feedback, administer assessments, post lectures, etc. LMS is also equipped with sophisticated features such as timers, timed link restrictions, adaptive content release, accessibility, etc. They are designed for a seamless asynchronous and synchronous course delivery in any modality.


Online learning has “redefined” learning components that were previously impossible in the in-person modality. Video conferencing enable participants to engage in synchronous learning sessions despite being in different physical locations and even timezones. Students can see the quiz results seconds after they submit their work.


SAMR Model

Key Takeaways

  • Useful for designing online learning experiences
  • Enhances learning using educational technology, adds value, transforms learning, and makes new things possible

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