Jerrold Kemp, Garry Morrison, Harold Kalman, and Steven Ross are the co-founders of the Kemp Model. The Kemp model of instructional design can be applied to a variety of institutions, such as businesses, the military, and education. It consists of nine components that overlap; the model is usually illustrated in an oval shape indicating that there is no particular order or a sequence in which the steps should be executed. However, the model stresses that it is logical to begin the process with definitions of the instructional problem and that the development of the instruction follows the analysis and design phases. Nevertheless, like other instructional design models, Kemp’s model emphasizes the importance of revision and formative assessment to improve the quality of the instruction.
The process of designing learning solutions starts with determining the nature of the issue that causes the gaps in learners’ performance and establishing whether the instruction is the best way to address it. For example, rescheduling the time of the high-stake exam because its timing overlaps with the examination in other classes could solve the students’ performance problem by reducing their anxiety. In this case, additional instruction on the subject may not have been the answer; rather, a non-instructional solution such as rescheduling turned out to address the students’ performance issue.
Learner and Context
Understanding the learners’ characteristics, background knowledge, experiences, beliefs, and assumptions will determine the instructional approach. For example, a college instructor might consider assessment scores or student reflections from the previous semester for planning instruction for the upcoming semester.
Task analysis refers to assessing types of content that will be included in the instruction. The instructor determines what kind of knowledge, skills, or procedures need to be included in the instruction so that learners can achieve the instructional objectives.
Kemp’s model defines the instructional objectives as “exactly what the learner must master.” They are not only used to assess learner performance but also to determine whether our instruction addresses the performance issues. Instructional objectives range from simply recalling the information (e.g., identify, describe), applying concepts (e.g., organize, choose), to more complex, such as analyzing or creating.
Content sequencing refers to designing the most efficient order in which information is presented to the learner helping them achieve the learning objectives. Kemp’s model suggests organizing information in a manner consistent with logic and the real world. Content sequencing is also determined by the results of the learner and content assessment.
The instructional strategies may range from “a simple analogy to a complex simulation” to lectures, group activities, etc. The strategies should be aligned with instructional objectives and the type of performance associated with each objective.
Designing the Message
This step describes how instructors use language, concepts, and visual design to communicate with the students. For example, the instructor may use a bull-point list where each item starts with an action verb to create assignment prompts. Designing the message may also entail using bold or italic letters to draw students’ attention in handouts, or using images or graphics to illustrate complex concepts.
Development of the Instruction
This part of the process comes after the analysis and design steps were completed. Development of the instruction indicates the production of the instructional materials, which may include organizing instructional units, creating instructional videos, lectures, handouts, or other print materials, webpages, etc.
The evaluation instruments indicate the methods used to assess whether the learners achieved the learning objectives. They may include simple tests but also more complex portfolios projects or papers, or simulations.
- Takes into consideration the needs, priorities, and experiences of the learner
- Allows more flexibility in the instructional design process by following the cyclical, iterative structure
- Could be applied to any course modality