|CHRONOLOGY of EUGENIO MARÍA DE HOSTOS
1839 – Born in the rural village of Río Cañas, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico on January 11th to don Eugenio María de Hostos and doña María Hilaria Bonilla.
1847 – Attends grade school at Liceo de San Juan in Mayagüez.
1848 – Receives award as best student in arithmetic at Liceo de San Juan.
1852 – Begins studies at Instituto de Segunda Enseñanza (Institute of Secondary
Education) in Bilbao, Spain.
1855 – Completes four years of study in “Latinidad” at Seminario de San Ildefonso in San
Juan, Puerto Rico and returns to Bilbao.
1858 – Attends School of Law, Philosophy and Letters at Universidad Central de Madrid
and studies under don Julián Sanz del Río.
1859 – Visits Puerto Rico and returns to Spain.
1860 – Begins studying law at Universidad Central in Madrid.
1862 – Death of his mother in Madrid, doña Hilaria de Bonilla y Cintron.
Visits Puerto Rico.
1863 – Returns to Spain.
Writes: La peregrinación de Bayoán.
Member of Sociedad Abolicionista de la Esclavitud (an abolitionist organization)
and Ateneo de Madrid (Madrid Athenaeum).
1865 – Submits letter to publisher of La Iberia (newspaper) referring to the bloody student
events in Madrid during “la noche de San Daniel”(Night of Saint Daniel).
1866 – While in Madrid, continues his struggle for political independence in Puerto Rico
1868 – While in Barcelona and Paris, promotes efforts to establish a Spanish Republic.
Rejects offer of the governorship of Barcelona.
On December 20th at the Ateneo de Madrid, he delivers his famous speech on
1869 – Recommended by the Partido Liberal (Liberal Party) of Puerto Rico as the
candidate from Mayagüez to the Cortes.(Spanish legislature)
Meets with General Serrano, President of the Provisional Government of Spain,
seeking autonomy for the Antilles.
Arrives in New York.
First meeting with Dr. Ramón Emeterio Betances.
Continues campaigning for independence of Cuba and Puerto Rico.
1870 – Member of: Club de Artesanos de la Sociedad de Instrucción (organization
supporting education), la Liga de Independientes (political organization), and la
Sociedad de Auxilios a los cubanos. (support group for Cubans)
Contributes to the newspaper La Revolución.
Departs for South America and travels to Cartagena, Panama, El Callao and
While in Cartagena, establishes Sociedad de Inmigración Antillana.
1871 – While in Lima, he establishes the newspaper, La Patria, with an associate.
Establishes Sociedad de Auxilios para Cuba and Amantes de Saber.
In December, arrives in Chile.
1872 – Member of Academia de Bellas Letras (Santiago, Chile).
Founds Sociedad de Auxilios para Cuba.
Awarded first prize for his Memoria de la Exposición Nacional de Artes e
Publishes “Bibliografía Crítica de Plácido.”
1873 – Publishes: La Educación Científica de la Mujer, “Ensayo Crítico sobre Hamlet,”
La peregrinación de Bayoán (second edition)
Departs from Valparaíso to Buenos Aires.
Honorary member of Sociedad Fraternal Boliviana.
Founds Sociedad de Auxilios para Cuba.
1874 – Declines offer to teach at Universidad de Buenos Aires.
Visits Brazil and later travels to New York where he writes for the publication La América Ilustrada.
Continues his campaign in support of independence for Cuba and Puerto Rico.
1875 – Departs from Boston on an armed expedition to Cuba accompanied by General
Returns to Boston after the mission fails.
Settles in Puerto Plata where he founds and directs the newspapers Las Tres
Antillas and Los Antillanos and collaborates on another, Las Dos Antillas.
El Club Cubano de Puerto Rico names him honorary member and he is
commissioned before the governments of Venezuela and Colombia.
1876 – Founds society: La Educadora.(The Educator)
Member of patriotic society: La Liga de la Paz. (League of Peace)
Departs from Puerto Plata to New York where he writes El retrato de Vicente
Francisco Aguilera, a biography of the Cuban independence hero, and edits
Programa de la Liga de los Independientes.
He arrives in Venezuela and begins to work in the area of education.
1877 – While in Venezuela, marries doña Belinda Otilia de Ayala Quintana, Cuban
Appointed school director in Margarita and Puerto Cabello.
1878 – Bypasses Puerto Rico on route to St. Thomas, where he remains for a short time
and then travels to Santo Domingo; finally returns to Puerto Rico in September
where he remains until March 1879.
1879-1888 Living and working in the Dominican Republic
1879 – Arrives in Santo Domingo where he settles with his family and devotes his time to
teaching and cultural work.
First son, Eugenio Carlos is born.
1880 – Founds and directs the first Escuela Normal (Teacher’s College) in Santo
Teaches constitutional, international and penal law there and at the Instituto
1881 – Founds Escuela Normal (Teacher’s College) in Santiago de los Caballeros,
Publishes his short work: Los frutos de la Normal (an exposition on practical
pedagogywritten at the request of the Dominican government)
Daughter, Luisa Amelia is born in March.
1882 – Travels throughout the Dominican Republic (San Cristobal, Bani y Azua).
Son, Bayoan Lautaro is born.
1883 – Establishes academic chair of Political Economy at Instituto Profesional.
Lectures on topics related to sociology that would later be part of publication:
Tratado de Sociología.
1884 – Investiture of first group of faculty members at Escuela Normal. (Teacher’s
Presents memorable speech: “Apología de la Verdad” (“In Defense of Truth”).
1885 – Hostos, representing the youth of Santo Domingo, welcomes the visiting Cuban
General Máximo Gómez to the Dominican Republic.
Participates as the delegate from Chile to the Congress “Histórico de Colón.”
Declines invitation by the President of Chile, Domingo Santamaría , to work on his
country’s public education system.
1886 – Investiture of second group of faculty members at Escuela Normal. (Teacher’s
1887 — Member of Ateneo de Lima. (Lima Atheneum)
Writes: Lecciones de Derecho Constitucional (Lessons in Constitutional Law)
Son, Adolfo José is born.
First graduates of Escuela Normal(Teacher’s College) from the Instituto de
Señoritas (Ladies’ Institute) directed by Salomé Ureña de Henríquez.
1888 – Member of Congreso Jurídico Internacional (International Judicial Congress)
Honorary Member of Sociedad de Estudios (Society of Study) in Santo Domingo.
Founds Escuela Nocturna (evening school) for the working class.
Writes: Moral Social.
Called upon by the government of Chile to work on educational reform.
Travels to Chile by way of Curacao and Panama accompanied by his wife, doña
Belinda and children: Eugenio Carlos, Luisa Amelia, Bayoán Lautaro and Adolfo
1889 – Arrives in Valparaíso, Chile.
Head of Liceo de Chillán (secondary school) until 1890.
Writes: Reforma de la enseñanza en Chile (Reform of Teaching in Chile) and
Reforma del plan de estudios de la Facultad de Leyes (Reform in the Curriculum
of Law Faculty) (Santiago de Chile).
Honorary President of Academia Carrasco Albano (Chillán).
Collaborates with Valentín Letelier and Julio Bañados Espinosa in writing: La
reforma de la enseñanza del Derecho. (Reform in the Teaching of Law)
1890 – Head of Liceo (secondary school) Miguel Luis Amunátegui (Santiago, Chile) until
Writes: Gramática General (Comprehensive Grammar).
Receives a vote of appreciation for his educational work in Santo Domingo.
Receives first prize in the “Certámen Varela del Club del Progreso” (literary
contest) for his work: La descentralización administrativa (Administrative
Professor of Constitutional Law at Universidad de Chile (University of Chile)
Director of Congreso Pedagógico (Congress of Pedagogy) of Chile and Ateneo de
His son, Felipo Luís Duarte is born.
1891 – Co-founder of “Société Scientifique du Chili.” (Santiago)
Writes: La Crisis constitucional de Chile (Constitutional Crisis in Chile)
1892 – Honorary member of “Academia Literaria Diego Barros Arana” (Chile).
1893 – Created programs of study in Spanish, history, and geography.
Writes study on Manuel Antonio Matta.
1894 – Director of Congreso Científico de Chile (Scientific Congress of Chile)
Writes: Ensayo sobre la historia de la lengua castellana (Essay on the
History of the Spanish Language) and Historia de la civilización antigua
(History of Ancient Civilization).
1895 – Director of Centro de Profesores de Chile (The Professorial Center of Chile)
Member of Centro Propagandista Cubano Martí in Caracas (Marti Propagandist
Member of Junta del Partido Revolucionario de Cuba y Puerto Rico de Nueva
York, in Santiago (New York Board of the Revolutionary Party of Cuba and Puerto
Honored with title of adoptive son of the municipality of Santiago.
1896 – Director of Sociedad Unión Americana (pro Cuba) in Santiago (American Union
Daughter, María Angelina is born.
1897 — Honorary member of Academia Literaria La Ilustración (Enlightenment Literary
Initiates a series of Cartas Públicas acerca de Cuba in the Chilean and
Dominican press (Public Letters about Cuba)
1898 – Resigns as director of Liceo Amunátegui, as well as from his professor’s chair and
journalistic chores, and travels to New York to continue his advocacy for Puerto
Accepts assignment from the Government of Chile to review the American
Institute of Experimental Psychology. (Departs from Valparaíso on route to
Arrives in Caracas and departs to New York on (another) assignment by the
Cuban and Puerto Rican migration offices in Colombia and Venezuela.
Founds: Liga de Patriotas (League of Patriots) and is named President.
Arrives in Puerto Rico and founds Primer Capítulo de Liga de Patriotas (First
Chapter of League of Patriots) and Instituto Municipal in Mayagüez. (Municipal
Obtains credentials as member of the Puerto Rican Commission formed by Drs.
Julio Henna, Manuel Zeno Gandía, and Rafael del Valle, and travels to
Washington to discuss the country’s issues.
1899 – Accompanied by Henna and Zeno Gandía, has historical interview with President
McKinley and departs with feeling of having accomplished nothing.
Returns to Puerto Rico and founds Instituto Municipal in Mayagüez.
Dominican government invites Hostos to reorganize public education.
1900 – Arrives in Santo Domingo with his family and is named Inspector General de
Pública.(Inspector General of Public Education)
Devotes himself entirely to teaching and to elaborating the laws for public
education in all aspects, and writes the programs for the teacher’s colleges.
1901 – Lectures on topics related to sociology, which along with earlier lectures(1883) are
published as Tratado de Sociología.
1902 – Becomes Director General de Enseñanza (Director General of Education) while
also directing Escuela Normal(Teacher’s College) in Santo Domingo.
1903 – On August 11th, Hostos dies at his residence, Las Marías in Santo Domingo,
Dominican Republic. Currently, he is interred in Panteón Nacional (National
Sources: Chronology prepared by Instituto de Estudios Hostosianos, 1995.
Hostos, Eugenio María de. America: The Struggle for Freedom.
San Juan, P.R. : [New York] : Río Piedras : Office of Cultural Development of the City of San Juan ; City University of New York ; Institute of Hostosian Studies Of the University of Puerto Rico, 1992
Hostos, Eugenio María de. América, la lucha por la libertad.
San Juan : Ediciones Compromiso, 1988.
Hostos : Imágenes de Hostos a través del tiempo : exposición itinerante en
conmemoración del ciento cincuenta aniversario de su natalicio :
Museo de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Río Piedras, 26
de febrero al 31 de marzo de 1988.
José A. Díaz, compiler/translator
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